This paper reports a flexible electronics-based epidermal biomicrofluidics technique for clinical continuous blood glucose monitoring, overcoming the drawback of the present wearables, unreliable measurements. A thermal activation method is proposed to improve the efficiency of transdermal interstitial fluid (ISF) extraction, enabling extraction with a low current density to notably reduce skin irritation. An Na+ sensor and a correction model are proposed to eliminate the effect of individual differences, which leads to fluctuations in the amount of ISF extraction. An electrochemical sensor with a 3D nanostructured working electrode surface is designed to enable precise in situ glucose measurement. A differential structure is proposed to eliminate the effect of passive perspiration, which leads to inaccurate blood glucose prediction. Fabrications of the epidermal biomicrofluidic device including formation of flexible electrodes, nanomaterial modification, and enzyme immobilization are fully realized by inkjet printing to enable facile manufacturing with low cost, which benefits practical production.
Read full text: A thermal activated and differential self-calibrated flexible epidermal biomicrofluidic device for wearable accurate blood glucose monitoring. ZHIHUA PU, XINGGUO ZHANG, HAIXIA YU, JIAAN TU, HAILONG CHEN, YUNCONG LIU, XIAO SU, RIDONG WANG, LEI ZHANG, DACHAO LI. SCIENCE ADVANCES, 27 JAN 2021 : EABD0199